COmpeting and COmplementary MObility solutions in urban contexts (COCOMO)


To achieve the research goals, COCOMO collects various kinds of data from the residents in three cities of Manchester (UK), Malmö (Sweden), and Utrecht (Netherlands).

  1. Questionnaire Survey:

We conducted an online questionnaire survey in all the three cities from July to October 2022, focusing on the attitudes towards and usage of SMM, and their impacts on activity-travel behavior, transport equity, social inclusion, and subjective wellbeing. Both SMM users and non-users were involved in the survey. Finally, we have obtained 1974 valid completes. Among them, there are 579 users of shared bikes (in all three cities), 333 users of shared e-bikes (in Manchester and Utrecht), 490 users of shared e-scooters (in Manchester and Malmö), 104 users of shared e-mopeds (in Utrecht), as well as 1117 non-users of SMM (as Table 1 shows).

Table 1 SMM users vs. non-users in the CoCoMo questionnaire survey sample

Sample size Users of shared… SMM non-users
Bike E-bike E-scooter E-moped Cargobike
UK 540 225 200 201 —- —- 271
NL 418 160 133 —- 104 65 195
SE 1016 194 —- 289 —- —- 651
Total 1974 579 333 490 104 65 1117


  1. App Survey

Following the online questionnaire survey, an App-based survey was also launched. In the App survey, we aim to collect one-week individual travel behavior data using an EU-tested App (TravelVu). By downloading and opening the App on smartphones, “TravelVu” could track the participants’ travel data (e.g., travel origins, travel destinations, travel duration, and mode choice) automatically. The respondent could also check and adjust the travel records easily. The tracked travel data will help understand how SMM are incorporated in weekly travel patterns and what typical substitution patterns can be determined. Till now, we have obtained 106 completes of the App survey (in Manchester and Malmö).

  1. Mobile Interviews

(To be added)

  1. Drone Observation

(To be added)

  1. Real-time User Data

(To be added)